Oral Health Complications Take Place in Pregnant Women


Pregnancy is a state of physiological condition that brings about numerous alternations in the oral cavity along with other physiological changes occurring all over the female body. Dental Caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility and various salivary variation are some of the changes frequently observe among pregnant women. Numerous studies have found evidence associating together poor maternal oral health, pregnancy outcomes and dental health of the offspring. These may extent from preterm delivery and low birth weight to a higher risk of early caries among newborns. Unfortunately, apart from looking after oral hygiene, pregnant women face various other hurdles in achieving optimal oral health.

Common dental Complications during pregnancy

Dental caries

Pregnant women are more susceptible to tooth decay due to an increase in the acidic environment of the oral cavity, increased utilization of sugary diet and negligence toward oral health

Periodontal disease

The role of raised levels of circulating estrogen is well established in higher abundance of gingivitis and gingival hyperplasia during pregnancy

Gingivitis

Gingivitis or bleeding tender gums is the topmost common dental complication. Such conditions are common due to hormonal fluctuations of estrogens and progesterone and alternation in normal oral flora.

Tooth mobility

Tooth erosion, a dental complication regarding be caused by pregnancy-induced vomiting.

Appropriate timings and dental management

To protect and encourage oral health; scaling, polishing and root planning are proposed at any stage of pregnancy. However, it is rigorously advised to carry out general dentistry procedures (i.e., routine restorations, extractions) after fetal organogenesis has taken place (i.e., in the second and third trimester). immense and lengthen dental procedures should be delayed till after delivery.

Oral and dental health management instructions during pregnancy

Oral health care management of pregnant patients is contemplated to be a very important aspect. It is recommended to evaluate the patient’s present dental health status and then to educate her about the anticipated changes during pregnancy and measures that can be supportive to evade pain and distress.

First trimester

The first trimester is not contemplated to be a suitable time for performing procedures. Organogenesis occurs during this period

Following instructions should be followed during this period:

  • Instructions to maintain oral hygiene.
  • Avoid routine radiographs.

Second trimester

In this trimester the organogenesis phase is accomplished and procedures such as emergent dentoalveolar and other electives procedures are unharmed to carry out.

Recommendations during this period include:

  • It’s safe to perform scaling, polishing
  • Active oral diseases should be controlled.

Third trimester

It is suitable to perform short dental procedures during the third trimester as there is no noteworthy risk to the fetus.

The following measures are recommended during the third trimester:

  • It’s safe to perform elective procedures.
  • The radiograph use should be minimized.

Pregnancy should not be considered as a definitive cause to defer required dental care. Oral care during pregnancy is very crucial and involves the contribution of the patient herself, dental professionals. Pregnant patients must be coached about the importance of conserving good oral hygiene, anticipated changes in the oral cavity and routine dental visits.

Reference: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352003515000404

https://cyberleninka.org/article/n/753127

 

 


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